diaphragms and fkm compound
diaphragm fkm compound
Elastomeric Teflon Diaphragms Rubber to metal bonding in diaphragm manufacturing. Fabric reinforced diaphragms Homogenous diaphragms Fab•Air Specialty Industrial Diaphragms
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Dia•Com is a leading international provider of innovative, cost-effective molded diaphragm solutions critical to the operation of essential systems and equipment in industrial, automotive, aerospace, medical instrumentation, and food and water processing applications. The company's reputation for excellence is based on superior quality in the design, manufacture and application of its high-performance, state-of-the-art, fabric-reinforced and homogeneous elastomeric diaphragm seals.

Many of the rubber manufacturing facilities in the United States produce pneumatic tires for automobile, trucks, airplanes and farm machinery. However, many rubber manufacturing facilities produce other engineered rubber products. The processes involved in these industries are very similar. Differences basically consist of the raw rubber material (natural or synthetic) used, the chemical additives, and the type of curing employed. The following is a description of a generic rubber manufacturing facility applicable to both tire and other manufactured rubber products, except where noted. The manufacturing of rubber products involves six principal processing steps (mixing, milling, extrusion, calendering, curing, and grinding), with ancillary steps in between. Initially, the raw rubber (natural or synthetic) is mixed with several additives which are chosen based upon the desired properties of the final product. The mixed rubber is often milled and transferred to an extruder where it can be combined with other rubbers. Many rubber products contain synthetic fabric or fibers for strengthening purposes. These fibers are typically coated with mixed rubber using a calender. The extruded rubber and rubber coated materials are then assembled into a final shape and cured. Among the steps in the tire assembly process, described in more detail below, are bead building; cementing and marking; cutting and cooling; tire building; and green tire spraying. It is during the curing process that the rubber vulcanizes (crosslinks), producing the characteristic properties of finished rubber. Once the final product is cured, it is often ground to remove rough surfaces and/or to achieve symmetry. Mixing consists of taking the raw rubber and mixing it with several chemical additives. These additives consist of accelerators (to initiate the vulcanization process), zinc oxides (to assist in accelerating vulcanization), retarders (to prevent premature vulcanization), antioxidants (to prevents aging), softeners (to facilitate processing of the rubber), carbon black or other fillers (to serve as reinforcing / strengthening agents), and inorganic or organic sulfur compounds (to serve as vulcanizing agents). Mixing typically is performed in an internal batch mixer. The internal mixer contains two rotors which shear the rubber mix against the wall of the vessel. Internal mixing is performed at elevated temperatures up to approximately 330oF. Once mixed, the rubber is discharged from the mixer and processed into slab rubber or pellets. Rubber mixing typically occurs in two or more stages wherein the rubber is returned to the mixer and remixed with additional chemicals. The initial stage results in non-productive compounds, and the final stage results in productive compounds. It should also be noted that various rubber compounds produced at a particular facility can be exported to other facilities for use there. Non-productive compounds consist of the raw rubber, process oils, reinforcing materials such as carbon black and / or silica and the antioxidant / antiozonant protection system. These materials are mixed at temperatures around 330oF. The final, "productive," stage involves mixing the rubber from the last non-productive stage with the activators, accelerators and sulfur curing agents. This stage is mixed at a lower temperature (around 230oF) because the rubber compound will now scorch and cure at elevated temperatures. 4.12-1 Evaporation Loss Sources 11/08 The majority of rubber products produced in the United States are composed of one or more of 23 generic rubber compounds shown in Table 4.12-14. Emissions factors were derived from the specific compound recipes shown in Table 4.12-2. Emissions from manufacturing aids such as solvents and adhesives ARE NOT included in these emission factors. Table 4.12-1 Index of Rubber Compounds Compound #1: Tire Inner Liner (BrIIR/NR) Compound #2: Tire Ply Coat (Natural Rubber / Synthetic Rubber) Compound #3: Tire Belt Coat (Natural Rubber) Compound #4: Tire Base/Sidewall (Natural Rubber / Polybutadiene Rubber) Compound #5: Tire Apex (Natural Rubber) Compound #6: Tire Tread (Styrene Butadiene Rubber / Polybutadiene Rubber) Compound #7: Tire Bladder (Butyl Rubber) Compound #8: EPDM 1 (EPDM Sulfur Cure) Compound #9: EPDM 2 (Peroxide Cure) Compound #10: EPDM 3 (Non-Black EPDM Sulfur Cure) Compound #11: CRW (Polychloroprene W Type) Compound #12: CRG (Polychloroprene G Type) Compound #13: Paracryl OZO (NBR/PVC) Compound #14: Paracryl BLT (NBR) Compound #15: Hypalon (CSM) Compound #16: Fluoroelastomer (FKM) Compound #17: AEM (Vamac) Compound #18: Hydrogenated Nitrile (HNBR) Compound #19: Silicone (VMQ) Compound #20: Acrylate Rubber (ACM) Compound #21: Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Compound #22: Emulsion SBR (SBR 1502) Compound #23: Epichlorohydrin (ECO) 4.12-2 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 Rubber Compound Recipesa Compound #1: Tire Inner Liner (BrIIR/NR) Recipe: Brominated IIR X-2 85.00 SMR 20 Natural Rubber 15.00 GPF Black 60.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 Paraffinic Medium Process Oil 15.00 Unreactive Phenol Formaldehyde Type Resin (Arofene 8318, SP1068) 5.00 Zinc Oxide 3.00 Sulfur .50 MBTS 1.50 186.00 Number of Passes/Temperature: 1 (NP Temperature: 320°F; Chlorobutyl or 290°F Bromobutyl) 2 (P) Temperature: 220°F Compound #2: Tire Ply Coat (Natural Rubber / Synthetic Rubber) Recipe: 50472 Natural Rubber SMR-GP Natural Rubber 70.00 Duradene 707 30.00 N330 36.50 Sundex 790 20.00 Flectol H 1.50 Santoflex IP 2.30 Sunproof Super Wax 1.20 Zinc Oxide 5.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 Sulfur 2.30 CBS .80 170.60 Number of Passes / Temperature: 1 (NP) Temperature: 330°F 2 (P) Temperature: 220°F 4.12-3 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 (cont.) Rubber Compound Recipes Compound #3: Tire Belt Coat (Natural Rubber) Recipe: #1RSS Natural Rubber 100.00 HAF Black (N330) 55.00 Aromatic Oil 5.00 N-(1,3 dimethylbutyl)-N-phenyl-P-phenylene diamine (Santoflex 13) 1.00 Zinc Oxide 10.00 Stearic Acid 2.00 n-tertiary-butyl-2-benzothiazole disulfide (Vanax NS) .80 Sulfur 4.00 Cobalt Neodecanate (20.5% cobalt) 2.50 180.30 Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1 (NP) Temperature: 330°F; add 1/2 black, add 1/2 oil 2 (NP) Temperature: 330°F, add remainder of black and oil 3 (remill) Temperature: 300°F 4 (P) Temperature: 220°F Compound #4: Tire Base / Sidewall (Natural Rubber / Polybutadiene Rubber) Non-Productive Recipe: NR-SMR-5 CV 50.00 Taktene 1220 50.00 N330 Carbon Black 50.00 Zinc Oxide 1.50 Stearic Acid 2.00 Agerite Resin D 2.00 Vulkanox 4020 3.00 Vanwax H Special 3.00 Flexon 580 Oil 10.00 171.50 Productive Recipe: Non Productive 171.50 Zinc Oxide 1.50 Rubber Maker Sulfur 1.75 DPG 0.10 CBS 0.60 175.45 Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1 (NP) Temperature: 330°F 2 (P) Temperature: 220°F 4.12-4 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 (cont.) Rubber Compound Recipes Compound #5: Tire Apex (Natural Rubber) Recipe: TSR 20 Natural Rubber 100.00 HAF Black (N330) 80.00 Aromatic Oil 8.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 Resorcinol 3.00 Hexamethylenetetramine 3.00 Zinc Oxide 3.00 N-tertiary-butyl-2-benzothiazole disulfide (Vanax NS) 1.50 n-cyclohexythiophthalimide (Santogard PVI) .30 Sulfur 3.00 202.80 1 (NP) Temperature: 330°F; add 60 parts black, add 6 parts oil 2 (NP) Temperature: 330°F; add Resorcinol, add 20 parts black, add 2 parts oil 3 (P) Temperature: 200°F; add Hexam Compound #6: Tire Tread (Styrene Butadiene Rubber / Polybutadiene Rubber) Non-Productive Recipe #1: SBR 1712C 110.00 N299 Carbon Black 60.00 Taktene 1220 20.00 Zinc Oxide 1.50 Stearic Acid 3.00 Vulkanox 4020 2.00 Wingstay 100 2.00 Vanox H Special 2.50 Sundex 8125 Oil 20.00 221.00 Non-Productive Recipe #2: Non-Productive #1: 221.00 N299 Carbon Black 20.00 Sundex 8125 Oil 5.00 246.00 Productive Recipe: Non-Productive #2 246.00 Zinc Oxide 1.50 Rubber Makers Sulfur 1.60 TMTD 0.20 CBS 3.00 252.30 4.12-5 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 (cont.) Rubber Compound Recipes Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1(NP) Temperature: 330°F; add 60 parts black, add 20 parts oil 2(NP) Temperature: 330°F; add 20 parts black, add 5 parts oil 3 (P) Temperature: 220°F Compound #7: Tire Bladder Recipe: BUTYL268 100.00 N330 55.00 Castor Oil 5.00 SP 1045 Resin 10.00 Zinc Oxide 5.00 Neoprene W 5.00 180.00 Number of Passes / Temperatures: NP 1 All Butyl, Castor Oil, Zinc Oxide, 45 phr N330, discharge approx 330°F / 340°F +Resin, 10 phr N330, discharge approx 270 / 280°F DO NOT EXCEED 290°F PROD NP2 = neoprene, discharge approx 250F / 260°F Compound #8: EPDM 1 (EPDM Sulfur Cure) Non-Productive Recipe: Vistalon 7000 50.00 Vistalon 3777 87.50 N650 GPF-HS Black 115.00 N762 SRF-LM Black 115.00 Process Oil Type 104B (Sunpar 2280) 100.00 Zinc Oxide 5.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 473.50 Productive Recipe: Non-Productive 473.50 Sulfur 0.50 TMTDS 3.00 ZDBDC 3.00 ZDMDC 3.00 DTDM 2.00 485.00 Number of Passes / Temperatures 1 (NP) Temperature: 340°F; upside down mix, rubber then black and oil 2 (P) Temperature: 220°F 4.12-6 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 (cont.) Rubber Compound Recipes Compound #9: EPDM 2 (Peroxide Cure) Non-Productive Recipe: Royalene 502 100.00 N 762 Carbon Black 200.00 Sunpar 2280 Oil 85.00 Zinc Oxide 5.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 391.00 Productive: Non-Productive 391.00 DICUP 40C 6.00 SARET 500 (on carrier / 2 parts active) 2.56 399.56 NP Temperature: 330°F P Temperature: 240°F Compound #10: EPDM 3 (Non-black EPDM Sulfur Cure) Recipe: Vistalon 5600 50.00 Vistalon 3777 87.50 Hard Clay (Suprex) 180.00 Mistron Vapor Talc 100.00 Atomite Whiting 40.00 Process Oil Type 104B (Sunpar 2280) 60.00 Silane (A-1100) 1.50 Paraffin Wax 5.00 Zinc Oxide 5.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 Sulfur 1.50 Cupsac 0.50 TMTD 3.00 535.00 Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1 (NP) Temperature: 330°F 2 (P) Temperature: 220°F, add Sulfur, Cupsac, and TMTDS 4.12-7 EMISSION FACTORS 11/08 Table 4.12-2 (cont.) Rubber Compound Recipes Compound #11: CRW (Polychloroprene W Type) Recipe: Non Productive: Neoprene WRT 100.00 N 550 13.20 N 762 15.70 Agerite Staylite S 2.00 Sunproof Super Wax 2.00 Santoflex IP 1.00 Magnesium Oxide 4.00 Stearic Acid 0.50 PlastHall Doz 15.00 153.40 Productive Recipe: Non-Productive 153.40 Zinc Oxide 5.00 TMTD 0.50 Dispersed Ethylene Thiourea 1.00 159.90 Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1 pass at 240°F; add accelerator package at 200°F Compound #12: CRG (Polychloroprene G Type) Non-Productive Recipe: Neoprene GN 100.00 SRF 50.00 Sundex 790 10.00 Octamine 2.00 Stearic Acid 1.00 Maglite D 4.00 167.00 Productive Recipe: Non-Productive 167.00 TMTM 0.50 Sulfur 1.00 DOTG 0.50 Zinc Oxide 5.00 174.00 Number of Passes / Temperatures: 1 (NP) Temperatures: 240°F; add zinc oxide and curatives late at 200°F 2 (P) Temperature: 200°F

 

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